Identification of the Active Ingredients in Methanolic Leaf Extract of Aspilia africana (Pers.) C.D. Adams and their Effects on Ibuprofen Induced Ulcer Model in Wistar Rats

SC Okereke, UO Arunsi, AC Ngwogu, JO Onyike, SC Chukwudoruo
Abstract: Peptic ulcer is one of the most dreadful diseases in the world today. However, the present study was investigated to identify the active ingredients in the methanolic leaf extract of Aspilia africana and their possible effects on Ibuprofen induced ulcer model in Wistar rats using standard analytical methods. The GC-MS spectral analysis revealed thirty three (33) active ingredients with 9,12,15-Octadecatrienoic acid, methyl-ester(z,z,z)-, stigmasterol, hexadecanoic acid, methylester(z)-, Methyl linolelaidate, n-Hexadecanoic acid, squalene, phytol and vitamin E possessing important pharmacological and cytoprotective functions. The oral acute (LD50) toxicity study divulged that the extract did not cause mortality to any of the experimental animals even at the highest dose of 5000mg/kg. Other studies disclosed that the induction of ulcerogenesis by ibuprofen led to alterations in the mucosal membrane and this was evidenced by severe distortions in gastric contents, serum concentrations of blood glucose, antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation marker, hepatocellular enzymes, renal function and haematological indexes. Pretreatment with the natural antidote (A. africana leaf extract) remediated this imbalance significantly more than a standard antiulcer drug (omeprazole). From these observations, we conclude that the methanolic leaf extract of A. africana offers more promising gastroprotection than omeprazole and due to low toxicity; it should be incorporated in traditional medicine for the management and treatment of peptic ulcer disease.
Keywords: Aspilia africana, active ingredients, NSAIDs, antiulcerogenicity, GC-MS., Research Paper, Biochemistry, Nigeria
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